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ASSOU OU BASLAM

Ame de la résistance amazigh à la conquête française

Isem nnes n tidett d àisa u àli n Ayt Baslam, ar as qqaren Assu yegan asegzel n àisa. S dat ad nesawel ghef tmeddurt nnes, d uyen akw yessker umazigh a ghef tlelli d uzarug n tmazirt nnes, ad nesawel ghef udrum mi idêfar, d temenâdtt g ddren Ayt àttâ nettni d iqbilen yâden.

Adrum mqquren n Ayt àttâ yedder umata degsen g ugwemmâd ashêrawi n Adrar Atlas (Draa, Tafilalt, Saghru...) maca wiyyâd, winna mi qqaren Ayt Umalu zedghen g Zawiyt n Uhênsâl, Azilal d temnâdin yâden.Yumêz cigan udrum n Ayt àttâ g izerfan n imazighen. Zik, ssekren Tafrawt nnsen g Saghru, dinna g yella Ighrem Amazdar yefferun akw imenghan yettilin ger medden s uzref. Dinna ag ittili umghar n ufella, anezzarfu ameqran yessenen Tiaàqqidin n uzref n Ayt àtta.

Amghar n ufella, yella yettenbâd yan useggwas, yettusmattey ussan n tefsut g useggwas tid îdfaren. Adday d yettey useggwas, da ttemtawan ghef umghar n tmazirt d win ufella. Imgharen llan ttubeddalen ku aseggwas s twala d umsasa ger ighsan n Ayt àtta. (élection du chef par rotation et complémentarité).

Assu u Baslam yella d amghar n tmazirt n Ayt Ilemcan. Gwmas Bassu, yella yessagh d imrigen d lbarûd seg Merrakwec ar tend yattawey ar tamazirt. Akud nnagh, urta n kcimen irumiyen tamazirt n Ayt àttâ. Ur djin yemsasa Assu u Baslam d lbaca n Merrakwec mi qqaren El Glaoui, netta d ufus nnes ayeffas Muhaddach u Lêhadj Faska. Yella Uglawwu yumêz cigan n teqbilin luqt nnagh ddaw tenbâdt nnes, maca ur djin ighiy ad en yawêd adrar n Saghru.
Seg 1916 ay yurem Uglawwu ad yekcem Atlas anammas, maca ur t udjin iqbilen n imazighen ad en yessawêd tanbâdt nnes ar ghursen.

Yekker urumy yessuter deg Uglawwu ad yerrêz Taghya n Tudgha acku urta telli akud nnagh ddaw tenbâdt n urumiy. Yara yas Lyautey i Uglawwu yuwt tebratt, yefk as 2000 Frank bac ad yerrêz tiqbilin n Ayt àttâ n Dadess d tin Taghya n Tinghir. Yekker d Uglawwu netta d medden nnes seg Merrakech, yeggez ghef temnaâdt nnagh, ar rêzzan ighsan n Ayt àttâ yan deffer
Wayêd seg useggwas n 1930 ar 1932. Yerêza Uglawwu Ayt Slillu, Ayt Unir, Ayt Isful n Tebesbast, Ayt Budawd n Tazarin, Ayt Wallal n Zagura... Aseggwas n 1932, yerêza Uglawwu amata g Ayt àttâ. Amghar meqquren nnsen akud nnagh U Lkisan, yemmut netta d àddi Kheyyi seg 1926. Nnghan ten Ayt àttâ acku gan afus d Uglawwu! Ayt Xebbac nittni, seg 1918 ayen illanttenaghen d irumiyen g Tefilalt. Llig yerêza Uglawwu amata degsen, munen Ayt àisa u Brahim, Ayt Xebbac, Ayt Yaàzza d wiyyâd, ddun gher adrar n Bugafer. G Taghya, tamazirt n àssu u Baslam, yella umghar n Ilemcan yettewet g taghma s yuwt tadwat ass g llan ttenaghen d ihêrkiyen n Uglawwu. Llig d uwêden irumiyen Tizi n Taddart tama n Warzazat, yengha degsen àssu u Baslam 18 n benadem, degsen lqebtân n irumiyen, yasey asen akw imrigen nnsen, yasey asen iserdan. G imenghi nnagh, llan uwsen as Ayt Xebbac. Alin akw igrawalen gher Ighrem amazdar yellan g Taghya n Ilemcan g Saghr, aseggwas n 1932. Akud nnagh ay yaghul àssu u Baslam d amghar n ufella. Ur yezmir Uglawwu ad en yawed Bugafer.

Smunen irumyen kigan n iqbilen yellan ddaw tenbâdt nnsen, dêfuren àssu u Baslam gher Saghru aseggwas n 1933. Imenghi n Bugafer ay sskenen i irumyen atig n imazighen. Ur ghiyen irumiyen ad rrun Ayt àttâ mer ur id kra n icekkamen n temazirt ad asen yuwsen (Service de renseignements des affaires indigènes) n lqebtân Spillmann. Icekkamen ay asen yemlen tigharasin n Saghru Sekenen asen adghar g tella teghbalut g ttagmen imghewghen aman. Ghas yuwt teghbalut a yellan g udrar, skeren irumiyen asdar tama nnes, ar tteqelen ad en ggwezen igrawalen.

Ass n 21 fbrayer 1933, deg udrar n Bugafer, uznen irumiyen snat tikkal imazanen ad sawlen d àssu u Baslam, maca yerura tend.. Dinnagh ay yemmut lqebtân Bournazel (28 febrayer 1933). Yella leàsker n irumiyen s 83000 n bnadem g llan igumiyen d lhêrka. 44 n isufag ayen yettaylalen seg Warzazat ar kkaten adrar n Saghru s lkurr. Llan Ayt àttâ luqt nnagh nittni s 1200 n bnadem... llan akw ighsan n Ayt àttâ g imenghi nnagh. Imenghi amezwaru yekka ass n 21 febrayer 1933. Ilin krâd yâden ussan n 24, 25, d 28 fbrayer, yemmut degs Bournazel, nnan ak yettewet s yuwt tadwat n nneqwert gher ighzdisen tecerreg as tasa, yamêz yuwt titi s iselli fella n ixef. Llant twetmin tekkurent lbarûd g imrigen n iregzen nnsent g imenghi nnagh.

Ass amezwaru deg Mars 1933, ggwezen irumiyen s isufag d lkurr ghef udrar n Saghru, acku nghan akw Ayt àttâ imazanen n irumiyen meqqar gan awed imrabêden. Yenna yak lqayd àli is ur id irumiyen a yerran Ayt àttâ, ur ghefsen yeffigh ghas Ayt àttâ ihêrkiyen d igumiyen yellan ddaw tenbât n irumiyen. Nnan asen icekkamen i irumiyen ad adjen igrawalen ar adday ur ghursen d yeqqimi lbarud, yenegh ten fad, hat add teggwezen yuwen deffer wayêd. Ayennagh a yessekren. Ass n 10 g Mars, ggwezent ed mraw n txamin n Ayt Unebgi d Ayt Yaàzza ad tteren lhena I Spillmann. Cigan degsen yella yettutres g imenghi.

Ar asen tteggan irumiyen asafar i izmulen nnesen.. Ass n 25 g Mars, yeggwez ed àssu u Baslam seg Bugafer ad yemtawa d irumiyen. Sersen igrawalen imrigen nnesen dat Jenninar Huré, Gatroux d Giraud. Sersen dat asen 174 n umrig bu yuwt titi mi qqaren Grass model 1874. Yemda imenghi n Bugafer. Mmuten degs 3500 n bnadem seg ugwemmâd n irumiyen degsen 10 n ifesyanen.

Temmut 1300 g Ayt àttâ. Winna yemmuten udren asen akw dinnagh g udrar. Sekren irumiyen yuwt teflut yeqqiman g udrar nnagh ar 1965 ay tt kkesen, aran fellas: "A la mémoire des officiers, sous-officiers, caporaux, soldats, goumiers et partisans des troupes mobiles des confins et de Marrakech tombés glorieusement dans les durs combats du djebel Saghro ".

Yemda imenghi, yaghul àssu u Baslam d amghar n udrum n Ayt àttâ. Maca qbel ad yesers imrigen, yecrêd i Huré kra n isekkinen degsen:

* Ad yessurf urumiy medden n Ayt àttâ ghef uyenna akw yezrin,
* Ad ur yettenbâd Uglawwu g tmazirt n Ayt àttâ,
* Ad yettyakez uzref n Ayt àttâ, adjen ten ad sers ferrun ger medden g tmazirt nnsen,
* Ad ur sar ttaghent ist àttâ n Saghru âhidus g lfictât n lmexzen d irumiyen.
Qeblen irumiyen ccrûd n àssu u Baslam, meqqar ur asen yeàjjib wenna crêden ghef Uglawwu. Yaghul àssu u Baslam d ameqran n uzerf g Ighrem amazdar, ar ferrun ger medden s teàqqidin n Ayt àttâ. Deffer, yaghul àssu u Baslam d amghar n ufella.

Maca, g "listiqlal" yettubeddel uzref g tmazirt n Ayt àttâ s ccariàa. Ayennagh a ur djin yukiz àssu u Baslam, yenna yak magh allig ur yad da ttilin imeggilla ghur bu lêhudjat am zik. Ur yessin magh allig smutteyen imeggilla s inigan?? Yenna yak magh is da ttilin inigan tama n wenna yeran ad yessker ka n ubekkâd?? Magh da ttilin inigan tasga n umaker?? Yukez urumiy azref n Ayt àttâ, acku imeggilla llan g insayen nnsen seg zik, ayennagh a yudjan àssu u Baslam ad yesres imrigen yeqbel lhena d irumiyen.

Yaghul àssu u Baslam d lqayd, ifek tagallit i Mohammed V ghef lquran. Yemmut wasâd n Bugafer ass n 16 ghuct 1960, aderen as g tmazirt nnes Taghya n Ilemcan. Ar assa, sulen Ayt àttâ, d medden akw yehêmlen tilelli da ttezûren tindêlt nnes g udrar n Saghru.

Yurat Lahbib Fouad Iccu

 

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